50 Terms A Web Developer Should Know

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    Website vs Web App vs Mobile App

    Website is a group of interlinked web pages under a common domain name.A website can be used to serve a variety of purposes. E-commerce, Blogging, Business/Agency, E-learning are some of the purposes of a website.

    Web application is a software that runs on a web browser. Common web apps are webmail, online banking, ticket booking etc.

    Mobile app is a software that runs on a mobile device, tablets or a watch. Mobile apps are generally downloaded from an app distribution platform like App Store or the Play Store. The apps can be free, premium or freemium (partially free, pay to use more advanced features).

    API

    API stands for Application Programming Interface. It refers to the communication protocol for interacting between two different parts of a computer program, without having to know how they are individually implemented.

    Client-side vs Server-side

    The client-side is also known as the frontend, and the server-side is also known as the backend. In a website, the client is referred to the browser that the user is viewing the website, the server-side is referred to the server that hosts it.The fundamentals of client-side development is using HTML, CSS and Javascript. There are many technologies for server-side development, including PHP, Python, Java, Ruby, Go etc. 

    The server-side languages, as the name suggests, runs on the server, not on the browser. The server code runs before HTML loads. Most websites make use of both client-side and server-side language. Few things can be done only on the frontend and few things can be done only on the backend. 

    Frontend is required for user interaction, whereas the backend is required for the dynamic data work, like authentication and authorization.

    AJAX

    AJAX stands for Asynchronous Javascript and XML. Ajax’s core function is to update the web page content asynchronously. It means the entire web page doesn’t have to reload when only a part of the web page has to be updated.
     
    The built-in “XMLHttpRequest” object or the new “fetch()” function within Javascript is commonly used to execute Ajax on web pages allowing websites to load content onto screen without refreshing the page. 

    Native API

    In web development, there are lots of Web APIs available. 
    The DOM Window object provides access to the browser’s session history through the history object. It gives methods to move back and forth through the user’s history. 
     
    HTML Drag and Drop interfaces enable applications to use drag-and-drop features in the browsers. The user can select a draggable element with the mouse, move the element to the droppable area and drop the element by releasing the mouse.
     
    The console API gives debugging methods like logging messages or to know the value of a variable. 
     
    The DOM API represents the structure of a web page in memory.

    Domain

    The address with which you access a website is called the domain of that website. For example, kamaltechnologies.in is the domain of this website.
     
    If hosting server is the land, the website you build on it is the house, then domain name is the address of the house. You can reach the website using the address.

    Version Control

    Version control is the process of recording and maintaining the changes that you make along your way of development.
     
    Suppose you make a few changes, and then continue making some more changes. But you want to go back to your previous set of changes, without having to rethink and re-code. Version control is the best way to go. Git is the most popular version control tool in the world.

    Responsive Web Design

    Responsive Web Design is the approach that suggests that design and development of a website should respond to the user’s environment and behavior based on device screen size, platform and orientation. 
     
    Whether the user is viewing the website on a mobile phone or an iPad or a desktop, the website should align itself to perfectly fit each of the device based on the orientation, resolution and the operating system. This requires an use of flexible boxes and grids, responsive images, and usage of media queries. 

    Automatically (even auto-magically) responding and rendering a website eliminates the need of a separate design and development process for each and every available gadget on the market. 

    NPM

    Node Package Manager is the default package manager for Node JS. It is written entirely in Javascript. NPM manages all the packages/libraries and modules and consists of command line client npm. 
     
    A package is a group of files that are needed for a module, and modules are the libraries that can be included in a Node JS project.

    HTTP Request - Response

    HTTP stands for Hyper Text Transfer Protocol. It is a client-server architecture model and stateless request / response protocol that operates across a reliable TCP/IP connection. 
     
    A HTTP client can a program or a web browser that initiates the HTTP request to connect to a server with request information.
     
    A HTTP server is a program that responds to the HTTP request from the clients with corresponding HTTP response messages.
     
    Whether the user is viewing the website on a mobile phone or an iPad or a desktop, the website should align itself to perfectly fit each of the device based on the orientation, resolution and the operating system. This requires an use of flexible boxes and grids, responsive images, and usage of media queries. 
     
    The HTTP request consists of three main parts – 
    1. Start line – The start line consists of HTTP method (like GET, POST etc), the request target (usually a request URL), the HTTP version

    2. HTTP Headers – A HTTP header follows a pattern of case insensitive string followed by a colon (:) and then value of the header. 
    Example: Content-Type: multipart/form-data;

    3. HTTP Body – Not all requests require a body. Some requests send data to update the server (like POST request).
     
    The HTTP response consists of three main parts –
    1. Status Line – The status line consists of the protocol version, status code (indicating the success or failure of the request) and status text (the message that can be read and used at the client side).
     
    Examples: 
    HTTP/1.1 200 Success
    HTTP/1.1 404 Not Found

    2. Headers
    The header structure follows the same format as the HTTP request headers format. A case insensitive string followed by a colon (:) and the value of the header.
    Example: Access-Control-Allow-Origin: *

    3. Body – This is used at the client side to display the information for the users.

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